Abstract Art Painting
Abstract art is use of visual language in a way which doesn't represent objective reality. Abstraction can be complete or partial. Every culture uses abstract visual elements such as decorative lines or shapes which don't symbolize anything in the objective universe.
In Western art, major influences which led to the eventual emergence of fully abstract art include romanticism, impressionism and expressionism. Romanticism puts greater emphasis on the emotions portrayed than the realism of the depiction. Impressionists (including Monet, Renoir and Degas) attempts to depict light and movement in ways which depart from literal depiction of reality, and expressionists (such as Franz Mark and Kandinsky) take this further with exaggerations of color and distortions of form as well as the inclusion of elements which don't have any relation to objective reality.
A notable example is J. M. W Turner, who by the 1840's was creating paintings that were essentially abstract, focusing almost entirely on texture and color, while adding objective depictions of familiar objects which take a very minor significance in the paintings which are obviously about light, emotion, and spiritual concepts. Famous examples of his almost abstract work include "Rain, Steam and Speed" and "The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up".
The post impressionists (such as Gauguin, Seurat, van Gogh and Cézanne) and cubists (such as Picasso and Braque) who came later were also creating art that was partially abstract, although still linked to objective reality. By 1915 the first purely abstract works of art were appearing. Other influences on abstract art were the intent to depict other senses such as sound and taste using visual art, plus the idea of representing "spiritual" realities in visual language.
Abstract art encompasses a wide range of forms, from organic to geometric, and can use all available colors. As well as two dimensional visual art sculpture can be abstract too, again using a broad spectrum of forms from geometric to organic.
The use of abstraction in art paralleled the ambient revolution in music. The development of western art music up to this point was overall an addition of more usable degrees of the scale, stretching from plainsong in the 13th Century where only the simplest mathematical relationships between pitches (the octave which is a 1:2 ratio, and the 5th which is 1:3) were allowed, all the way to 12-tone music and microtones. The only place left to go was to abandon the scale of fixed pitches entirely. While similar in concept, unlike the advent of pure abstraction in art, the ambient revolution in music for the first time allowed the use of sounds taken from the objective world, as integral elements of a piece of music.
By the 1950's New York was the location of many important abstract artists, including the abstract expressionists. Famous examples of this movement include Pollock's paint-drip paintings, Franz Kline's black and white abstract "action art" and Rothko's famous color-field abstracts
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